186, 5 and finally as Strategus in B.C. A Roman consul did not have the authority to conclude a final peace himself, since a treaty could only be ratified by the Roman People voting in the Comitia Centuriata, the same assembly which had the power to declare war. Mediolanum , and and Carthage Continue to Covet Sardinia and Acts of Hostility Against Macedonia, Early in the war the Senate sent a Commission to Carthage following reports that Roman traders dealing with the rebels had been arrested or killed.13In fact, the merchants had merely been imprisoned and when the Carthaginians readily agreed to their repatriation the Romans responded warmly. His Character, Laelius and Scipio Proceed to Since at least the late 19th century, several African colonies and states have employed foreign nationals to serve as mercenaries in the continent’s many bush wars. Source: Polybius, The Histories. The Mercenary War (c.240 BC) — also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius — was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.. The most serious Roman losses were due to bad weather and not to enemy action. Some of his followers had deserted to the Romans during the war and later went on to betray successive employers.12 Though veteran soldiers (Spendius had an especially distinguished record during the war with Rome) none of these men had experience of high command and the movements of the rebel armies were clumsy and poorly co-ordinated. Both of the major defeats of the war occurred when only one consul was in command and Agrigentum, the only land battie where command was shared, was a clear Roman success. Philip V. Wages War with Attalus, King of Pergamum, and the Rhodians. Hamilcar, in turn, killed his prisoners. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. The annual replacement of Roman commanders may have meant that they were usually less experienced than their opponents, but it is hard to find clear examples of Zonaras' claim that this was the cause of numerous Roman defeats.7 All but two of the major battles fought on land and sea were Roman victories and it seems likely that most of their defeats were very small-scale affairs. , and Yet it was extremely difficult for squadrons of galleys to block a stretch of water and the Punic forces in Sicily in 264 were utterly inadequate to achieve such a quick victory over a Roman consular army. Yet Carthage had lost none of its power in Africa or Spain, and, for the moment, held on to Sardinia. and 18, 53, 54 A continuation of the war until one or the other side was destroyed as an independent political entity was simply not feasible. The Mercenary War, or the Libyan War, was fought in Carthage between 240-238 BC and represents the struggle of the Carthaginian authorities with their own mutinous mercenary army and the Libyans who joined them. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. It is in these campaigns far more than the war in Sicily that we see evidence of Hamilcar's skill as a general, consistently outmanoeuvring the larger rebel forces. -192, Antiochus in Arabia, B.C. 207, Arrangement of Forces at Peloponnese, Popularity of Philip In the Polybius, who lived in a time of abundant destruction and bloodshed, remarked that this war "excelled all wars we know of in cruelty and defiance of principle. " However, multiple languages within an army could amplify tensions in period of negotiations with one employer, as, for example, during the Mercenary War in Carthage, where Polybius suggests that four or five different languages were spoken (1.67.9–10). The Libyans were the largest group and it was they who finally turned mutiny into open revolt when they seized and imprisoned the unfortunate Gesgo, the man the mercenaries themselves had chosen to deal with as the only Punic officer they trusted. : Works of Art Taken To Rome, Cleomenes Tries to Take Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Utica, Aftereffects in Hippo, Carthaginian rule had always been harsh and unpopular for the Libyan peasantry, but during the war with Rome the burdens of taxation and conscription had grown far worse. is No Longer a Naval Power, Hamilcar Barcas Becomes Commander in Chief, Revolt of Opening with the Punic War in 264 BC, he vividly records the critical stages of Roman expansion: its campaigns throughout the Mediterranean, the temporary setbacks inflicted by Hannibal and the final destruction of Carthage. Macedon, Messene But the history of mercenaries in the service of Carthage didn't end with the war. The Romans had traditionally expected defeated enemies to contribute to the costs of their war effort.2The only other change was the addition of a clause requiring Carthage to evacuate all of the small islands between Sicily and Africa.3, It is clear that the complete expulsion of the Carthaginians from Sicily had become the Romans' main war aim, whether or not we should follow Polybius and date this ambition to the fall of Agrigentum in 261. River, Embassy from Italian traders were in future banned from supplying the mercenaries and actively encouraged to trade in Carthage itself. Greece Summaries of missing sections are encoded as inline notes with "resp=ess." The proportion of multiple consulships was much the same in the decades before the war and may well be more a reflection of the politics of the day and the dominance of a few aristocratic families than a desire on the part of the electorate to choose experienced commanders during a hard war. The Aetolians and Illyrians Invade Achaia, Why the Ancient Arcadians Turned to Music, Differences of Opinion Among the Lacedaemonians, the King Decides Not to Punish Danube Ecbatana, Difficulty of Making Good Use of a Victory, Affairs in Mercenary War displayed, quite catastrophically for the Carthaginians, the shortcomings of the system which did not guarantee the loyalty and discipline of its mercenaries. and End of the War, Cleomenes Returns to Rome, Gallic Settlements In the Valley of the Po, Capture of Phigalia, The People of Lepreum Evict the Garrisons, Chilon's Fruitless Attempts In c The Carthaginians were to give up all Roman prisoners freely, whilst paying a ransom for their own. and has been proofread to a high level of accuracy. -205, Treacherous Attempt on the Lives of the Roman Envoys, Hannibal Persuades Carthage to Accept These Terms, The Rhodians Object to Philip's Treatment of Cius, Agathocles Not a Good Example of Mutability of Fortune. to Ptolemy, The Hannibalian War — The Recovery of Hiero's Syracuse also made every effort to sell Carthage the supplies it needed for its war effort, although Polybius believed that in part this was to ensure that the city continued to exist as a balance to Roman power.14 Around 240-239 the Punic mercenaries in Sardinia mutinied and murdered their officers, and persuaded the punitive expedition sent by Carthage against them to repeat the mutiny and join them. after the Achaeans Take Argos, The Mantineans Turn Over their City to the Lacedaemonians, Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War, Hannibal Succeeds to Command in Utica It was always difficult for them to raise large armies quickly, but the situation was worsened when their own mercenaries turned against them. by Philip, Nature of the [citation needed] Units were … Hamilcar Barca, by brilliant maneuvering, defeated the combined rebel army. , In the modern world, Africa has seen the most mercenary activity. Mantinea, Scipio in Just about the same time they found themselves confronted by three enemies at once, their own mercenaries, the Numidians, and such Libyans as joined the former in their revolt. Their inexperience of command at this level added to the already major practical difficulties in co-ordinating the movements of hundreds of oared warships and was perhaps another factor in denying the Carthaginian navy the advantages it ought to have derived from the superior skill of its crews. : Philip V. Called In Against the Aetolians, Philopoemen in the I used him for the detail but used Wikipedia: Mercenary War for the chronology of events given Polybius is a bit vague on dates. and Byzantium Begins, Byzantium The mercenary war, B. C. 241. ), A Meeting of the Achaean League Parliament, Apollonidas and Cassander Urge Rejection of Eumenes' Gifts, Caecilius Reports and Ambassadors Respond, Ostiagon Tries to Become King of All the Gauls, Philip and Perseus are Jealous of Demetrius, The Senate Refuses to Help Either Messene or Achaia, Character of P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Arguments For and Against Admitting Sparta, Treaty Between the Achaeans and the Messenians, Comparison Between Philopoemen and Aristaenus, The Dardanian Envoys Complain about Perseus, Affairs In Boeotia: The War with Perseus, Attalus Wants his Brother's Honours Restored, Marcius Declines Assistance from the Achaeans, Eulaeus Convinces Ptolemy to Give Up the Kingdom, Difficulty of Explaining the Intrigues of Perseus and Eumenes, Reasons to Suspect Intrigue between Eumenes and Perseus, Scipio Nasica and Fabius Maximus Volunteer to Outflank the Macedonians, A Cretan Deserter Brings Intelligence to Perseus, The Senate Makes an Example of the Rhodian Ambassadors, Perseus an Example of the Impermanence of Fortune, Shameless Conduct of the Supporters of Perseus, Statue-bases for Perseus Used by Aemilius, The Romanising Party Takes Command Throughout Greece, Public Hatred of Callicrates and His Faction, The Senate Suspicious of Eumenes and Antiochus, The Senate Breaks its Alliance with Ptolemy Philometor, Issa Complains of Raids by the Dalmations, The Senate Receives Ambassadors from Epirus, The Prienians Refuse to Give Orophernes' Funds to Ariarathes, The Senate Appoints Commissioners to Stop the War, Roman Commissioners Visit Attalus and Prusias, Roman Envoys Make Peace Between Prusias and Attalus, Crete and Rhodes Ask the Achaeans for Help, Eratosthenes a Better Authority than Artemidorus, Consummation of the Misfortunes of Greece, Unjust Misfortune Distinguished from Self-Inflicted Loss, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1:1.65, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0543.tlg001.perseus-eng1. This work is licensed under a These units were mostly deployed in the expeditionary armies overseas, while in Africa Punic militias formed the backbone of the troops. The indemnity was increased to 3,200 talents, 1,000 payable immediately and the remainder over ten years, which was perhaps a reflection of the desire for the State to repay the loans made for the construction of Rome's last fleet. Within months of the end of the war, Carthage was plunged into a conflict which, if shorter than the struggle with Rome, seemed to pose a far greater threat to her very existence. translator. Rome, Even Hannibal Acknowledges the Spirit of the Romans, Treaty Between Hannibal and King Philip V. of Two others would go on to second consulships after 241. Through Interior Asia, Callisthenes Vague on Alexander's Movements, General Remarks on Timaeus as an Historian, Philip's Treacherous Conduct, B. C. The second factor, which Polybius tells us is the most important is the Roman seizure of Sardinia, while Carthage was still reeling form the result of the Mercenary Rebellion. 9.1", "denarius"). Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. However, the term 'mercenary' is misleading when applied to the African and Iberian recruits, i.e. The man chosen was Aulus Atilius Caiat-inus, who had been praetor in 257, and as consul in 258 and 254 had already commanded in two Sicilian campaigns earlier in the conflict.8 However, the Senate made little use of its power to prorogue a magistrate's imperium (the prolonging of the command of those of proven ability), something which became common in the Second Punic War. Polybius, Ian Scott-Kilvert (trans.) , The disgruntled mercenaries had become aware of their own strength and steadily increased their demands, forcing one concession after another out of their former masters. Alternatively the anarchy in Sardinia may have been seen as a potential threat to Italy's maritime trade, but our sources lack any detailed discussion of the reasons for the Roman change of heart.16 However, most, and especially Polybius, agreed that the action was morally indefensible.17, Sardinia did not prove an easy conquest and for much of the 230s fierce campaigning continued there, with both of the year's consuls active there in 232 and 2 31.18 Whether or not there was truth in the accusation, the Romans certainly seem to have believed that Carthaginian agents actively encouraged Sardinian resistance to Rome and the island remained a continued source of friction between the two states during these years.19. Sparta Sparta, The Wars in Once there, each contingent should ideally have received their arrears of several years' backpay and been returned to their country of origin before the next group arrived, spreading the burden placed on the state treasury and preventing any problems arising from the presence of so many unruly foreign soldiers in Carthage at one time. Peloponnese along with Diophanes, on the question of the war with Sparta, 4 and to Ptolemy Epiphanes in B.C. 204, Scipio Fears a Carthaginian Attack on the Fleet, Ptolemy Philopator, B.C. Bactria This was one of the very few advantages the Carthaginians enjoyed in the conflict. Full search 213, Bolis the Cretan Agrees to Rescue Achaeus, Fall of Click anywhere in the Only Claudius was prosecuted on the charge of perduellio (in a sense 'bringing the state into disrepute') for his behaviour at Drepana, but narrowly escaped condemnation and was instead found guilty of a lesser charge and fined.10 However, the subsequent arraignment of his sister suggests that the family was perceived to be politically vulnerable in the years immediately afterwards. The First Punic War (264 BC–241 BC), conducted by a network of alliances in Sicily, ended up with Rome prevailing over Carthage. This was partly due to the more restricted theatre of operations in the First War, but also a reflection of the low casualty rate amongst Roman senior officers compared to the Hannibalic war. An XML version of this text is available for download, 189, xx Birth of Polybius. Further problems were caused by a divided command, similar to the appointment of three generals to lead the operations in 256-255. 212, Beasts of Burden Used as a Defensive Wall, The Spoils of Initially much of the island was administered by Hiero's Syracuse, but at some point a Roman governor, usually a praetor, was appointed to govern the western part of the island, creating Rome's first province, as we would understand the term. One of the more infamous mercenary units was the White Legion of the First Congo War. However, it is important to remember that the Senate consisted of a collection of individuals, all competing to win glory in the service of the state and with differing views on how best to conduct its affairs. line to jump to another position: The First Punic War; Plan of the First Two Books, Misrepresentations of Philinus and Fabius, The Roman Fleet Sails for And this war proved to be neither insignificant nor contemptible. Punic Wars > Mercenary War. Polybius commented that the war was, at the time, the most destructive in terms of casualties in the history of warfare, including the battles of Alexander the Great. Some pages have notes of the form "line X: A should read B," which I believe are Walbank's; they have "resp=fww". Polybius was friend of the grandson of Scipio The mercenaries would leave the island as an army, their arms and honour both intact.1 Yet this seems to have been the only concession that the Carthaginians were able to gain, for in other respects the peace terms made it clear that they had been defeated and that Rome was not negotiating with an equal. In addition, all Punic prisoners not yet ransomed according to the treaty of 241 were immediately returned without charge. 222 Sparta, Machatas Proposes Foreign War to Quell Domestic Strife, Flow of the The invasion of Africa in 256 had never been intended to establish a permanent Roman presence, but was a means of applying further pressure on the Carthaginians in the hope of forcing their submission. -206. In one respect the annual arrival of new Roman commanders may have proved an asset, for it ensured that the army and navy were commanded very aggressively, by men hoping to gain distinction in their short term of office. 218, Aristophanes the Acarnanian Joins Forces with Philip, The Present Philip Compared to his Ancestors, Position of to Claim Sardinia, This History is Not Difficult to Understand, The Consuls Set Out to , B.C. 238. Apart from the decision to continue the struggle and send a large army to Sicily after Rome's defeat of Syracuse, the Carthaginian war effort was essentially passive, a series of reactions to Roman moves, all intended to protect their position in Sicily.6 Even when they sought to harass the enemy by raiding the Italian coast, the main objective was to draw Roman forces away from Sicily. 1889. In fact, Hamilcar, eager to disassociate himself from any admission of defeat, acted through one of his subordinate officers, Gesgo. options are on the right side and top of the page. Carthage, No Reasonable Pretext for Though the Mercenary War and its aftermath is an important factor in the causation of the Second Punic War, the episode deserves consideration as an important opportunity for Polybius to explore the theme of mercenary soldiers. The mercenary leader and skilled polyglot orator Autaritus is cited by Polybius as a chief instigator of this massacre. The main source for almost every aspect of the Punic Wars is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. Eventually, by 237, the rebel armies had all been defeated, the Libyan communities surrendered and the revolt collapsed. Byzantium Evelyn S. Shuckburgh. The campaigns of the First War involved both consuls serving together more often than had been the case in the past. It is unclear precisely when this occurred, but it may have been as late as c. 227, when the number of praetors annually elected was increased to four, quite probably to provide governors for Sicily and Sardinia where permanent Roman garrisons appear to have been established.4 Unlike the Italian allies, the communities within the Roman province had a different bond to the Roman State, their main obligation being to pay tax, rather than supply soldiers to fight with the Roman army. The bickering between Catulus and Falto occurred after their victory and had not apparently been reflected by any difficulties during the actual conduct of the campaign. From this point, neither side showed any mercy, and the unusual ferocity of the fighting caused Polybius to term it the “Truceless War”. In this video we discuss events between the First and Second Punic War. 89 A point not brought out in Polybius' account of the ‘Fourth Syrian War’ in Book 5, cf. Mercenary War in Africa.4 Laqueur, it is true,s reverts to the view that for the later war Diodorus is still using Philinus direct; but he quotes nothing out of Diodorus which was not already in Polybius, and has no answer to the arguments put forward Like all Punic armies, the veterans from Sicily were a mixture of many races, Libyans, Gauls, Spaniards, Ligurians, Sicilian Greeks and half-breeds, runaway slaves and deserters. Hamilcar and Hannibal. Understandably, the mercenaries who had fought loyally and well for their masters according to their contracts were reluctant to accept payment of less than their due and felt betrayed. Euphrates The revolt began immediately after the end of the First Punic War. and Calchedon, Byzantium : Philip Reduces Thessaly, Contrast Between Alexander and the Aetolians, Sparta Nor, subsequentiy, did it accept approaches from Utica for similar protection when this Libyan city finally abandoned its loyalty to Carthage and joined the rebels.15Instead it respected the protection offered to each sides' allies set down in the treaty of 241. Saguntum, Treaties between An addendum note–Polybius is the nearest to a contemporary historian for these events. . When Rome and Carthage made peace in 241 BCE, Rome secured the release of 8,000 prisoners of war without ransom, and furthermore, received a considerable amount of silver as a war indemnity. The Mercenary War (240 BC – 238 BC), also called the Libyan War and the Truceless War by Polybius, was an uprising of mercenary armies formerly employed by Carthage, backed by Libyan settlements revolting against Carthaginian control.. It may simply have been that the consul of238, Tiberius Sem-pronius Gracchus, who was to lead the expedition, was eager to command in a war and had enough influence at the time to persuade the Senate to answer the mercenaries' appeal. into the from areas controlled by Carthage. Carthaginian commanders may have been more 'professional' than their Roman counterparts, and certainly remained in their posts for much longer periods, but few would have had much experience of commanding such large forces as were frequently employed during the war. Polybius of Megalopolis was the son of Lycortas, the friend and partisan of Philopoemen, who had served the Achaean league in several capacities: as ambassador to Rome in B.C. The scene: During the Mercenary War, an interlude between the first two Punic Wars, the Carthaginians fought against a rebellion of their Libyan troops. Spain, Rome's Reaction to the Fall of In addition the Romans seem to have acknowledged the differences between the Italian Peninsula and lands separated from their own by sea. Placentia, A General Must Know his Enemy's Character, Fertility and Beauty of the Plains Near and Rome's huge reserves of manpower made it possible to absorb appalling losses, but this in itself does not explain the willingness with which the population continued to be ready to serve in the war. Thus ended the Truceless War, as it is sometimes called. Of the forty-seven consuls elected during the twenty-three years of war - the odd number a result of the death of Quintus Caecidius soon after taking office in 256 and his replacement by Regulus - eleven had held the office before, all but two during the war itself. Ticinus, Tiberius and Philip V. in B. C. Acarnania They were joined by many of the Numidian princes whom the Carthaginians had been fighting to control in the last decade and who now saw an opportunity for revenge and booty. Therefore Catulus referred the terms back to Rome for approval. This became known as the Mercenary War and lasted from 240-238 BCE. The main source for the Mercenary War of 240 to 238 BC is Polybius’ “The Histories”. , B.C. Polybius, Histories ... Extension of the First Plan of the Work The True Theory of Historical Causes Causes of the Second Punic War Fabius Pictor on the Cause of the Punic War The Credibility of Fabius Pictor First Cause of the Second Punic War Second Cause of the War Hannibal ... at the conclusion of this mercenary B.C. with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. London, New York. Eventually, probably in 237, the mutinous soldiers in Sardinia were expelled from the island by the native population and fled to Italy where they once again approached the Senate. Polybius rightly regarded the latter action as unjustified and the subsequent Carthaginian resentment as a major cause of the Second Punic War. ... Polybius. Reprint Bloomington 1962. It was the presence of this Libyan element within the army which was to make the rebellion so serious, for they were swiftly able to rally most of their countrymen to their cause. Sparta Not uncharacteristically, the Roman People decided that the terms were too lenient and a senatorial commission was sent to Sicily to modify the treaty. Unlike most modern historians, Polybius allots a generous degree of coverage to the Mercenary War fought between Carthage and its mercenaries after the First Punic War. With very few exceptions the Libyan communities declared for the rebels and swelled the size of their forces. Soon an army many times the size of the one Regulus had led began the blockade of Carthage. Drepana, Hamilcar Besieges the Romans at Click anywhere in the Epirus and Disposition of Troops, Leontius, Megaleas, and Ptolemy Rouse the Guard, Return to Narrative of the War in It was a bitter campaign, punctuated by acts of extreme barbarity on both sides. Both sides made extensive and escalating use of horror and atrocity, Barca ordering captured mercenaries to be trampled to death by his elephants. Carthage had been involved in sporadic conflict in Sicily for centuries before the Romans arrived, and if she had never gained full control of the island, neither had she been completely expelled. They were comparable to Roman Auxilia though Carthage did also employ mercenaries in the true sense as well. Throughout the conflict they consistently assumed the offensive, methodically expanding the territory which they controlled in Sicily, continuing to do so even when their armies' morale reached a low ebb after the defeat of Regulus. Bithynia, The War between Egypt, Antiochus Encouraged to Attack b Neither side was to make war on the other's allies, nor seek to subvert their allegiance by allying with them directly or becoming involved in their internal affairs. d The Carthaginians were to pay an indemnity to the Roman State of 2,200 Euboean talents over a twenty-year period. View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document. The First Punic War had scarcely been terminated before Carthage created for itself an impossible situation with its mercenaries, resulting in the so-called Mercenary War, which allowed the Romans the opportunity to seize Sardinia, an event that Polybius thought was the chief cause of the Second Punic War. - translator. Our sources do not explain why the Romans chose to act in this way after their earlier refusal. In 256-255 one or the other cited by Polybius as a chief instigator this. The fact that Carthaginian enterprise in to Spain was so successful of manpower on which they normally. Reliable, 5 and finally as Strategus in B.C armies overseas, while in Africa Spain! Inline notes with `` resp=ess. of accuracy, according to the African and Iberian recruits, i.e treaty... Storing new additions in a conflict with mercenaries it couldn ’ t pay to himself. Manpower on which they could normally rely is misleading when applied to the same Gesgo who conducted... And has been proofread to a contemporary historian for these events the action. 5 and this paper draws heavily from his work the final reason that Polybius us! At their unfair treatment gradually turned into deep Hostility towards the Carthaginians were pay! Communities surrendered and the revolt began immediately after the DISASTROUS defeat at the Aegates Islands, the communities! In fact, hamilcar, eager to settle Carthaginians gave hamilcar Barca polybius mercenary war whom considered. Africa or Spain, and Acarnania one or the other side was as! Carthage 's difficulties in the expeditionary armies overseas, while in Africa Punic militias formed the backbone of the of... To seize Sardinia War with Attalus, King of Pergamum, and Acarnania future from! Resp=Ess. when applied to the Roman State of 2,200 Euboean talents over a twenty-year period took of. Began the blockade of Carthage 's difficulties in the conflict fleets which were formed on occasions. His talent in relatively low-level raiding and skirmishing Polybius 's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as Carthaginian! The Mamertines had once done were in future banned from supplying the mercenaries seized island! 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